“On the coast of Africa and throughout the Americas, the Portuguese and the Spanish made alliances and war with African and Native American cooperation and assistance. Forged in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Portuguese and Spanish empires were not exclusively Portuguese and Spanish constructions. The Portuguese were on the coast of Africa with the forbearance of local African rulers where they traded in gold and slaves with the cooperation and participation of African societies. The Spanish achieved dominion over a few powerful Native American empires thanks to alliances with other Native American states and the arms of Native and African conquistadores. They ruled and taxed native societies with the cooperation [of] the native nobility. From the very beginning, the Atlantic World was an ethnically diverse world based on cooperation as much as on force.” – Page 106 of The Atlantic World: Europeans, Africans, Indians and Their Shared History, 1400 – 1900 by Thomas Benjamin.

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